Showing posts with label 3GPP Long Term Evolution. Show all posts
Showing posts with label 3GPP Long Term Evolution. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

4G: LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband Review

4G: LTE / LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband
(Image via Amazon aStore)
The book starts with standards and basic technologies - the role of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)in standards, multiplexing (TDMA, FDMA, OFDM), transmission (DFT-Spread OFDM), modulation (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM), multi-antenna technologies. The discussion of LTE starts in detail in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 shows the radio network architecture, with a useful downlink protocol architecture diagram (Figure 8.4). This book focuses on the Radio Access Network. For the packet core network architecture (Evolved Packet Core - EPC), the reader is referred to SAE and the Evolved Packet Core: Driving the Mobile Broadband Revolution. LTE has different implementations for the wide range of devices and environments that it supports. Spectrum flexibility, a key feature of LTE in a spectrum starved world, is discussed in detail. There are also multiple transmission modes, described in support of the different types of antenna systems in Chapter 10.

The signaling for the downlink in Chapter 10 and Chapter 11, which focuses on the physical layer uplink channel processing and transmission, is described in detail. Chapter 12 focuses on retransmission which is a two-level structure using the MAC and RLC network layers. Chapter 13 looks at the power control and scheduling, then goes into how inter-cell interference is handled. It analyzes both pico cells and macro cells. Chapter 14 discusses how a device finds the network cells. It also discusses how a network can page a device to wake it up.

Chapter 15 describes broadcasting using Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (MBMS). The book notes the benefits to the device - battery savings - as well as to the network - reduced load. Chapter 16 gets into using the backhaul network to repeat signals - with or without decoding and recoding. Chapter 17 gets into available spectrum and has useful tables detailing current allocated spectrum in major markets. Wireless performance is highly dependent on terrain, buildings and impediments to radio signals. The book quotes 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) base station and device output power for test environments - indoor, microcellular, urban base coverage and rural high speed coverage. The chapter also looks at the cell spectral efficiency.

Chapter 19 could almost be at the beginning as it compares LTE to alternative technologies. The book ends with a list of references. The book needs challenging questions and examples at the end of each chapter if it is to be used as a textbook. It also lacks a glossary of acronyms, however given the number of websites that provide lists this is not a serious omission.

The book is ideal for product managers, marketing managers and engineers in telecom equipment vendors or service provider companies who want a general understanding of LTE and how the different protocol layers fit together.

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Thursday, September 13, 2012

iPhone 5 a ‘Near Field Communication’ (NFC)

Apple iPhone 5
Apple has been pleased to please its dedicated line of consumers all over the world with top notch and hugely rated smart phones. People flock in line to the Apple store as soon as the phone is released in the market. Tech-savvy individuals cannot wait to get their hands on the newest Apple inventions. This is going to be a scenario in the coming months of June or July 2011 when the much acclaimed and eagerly anticipated next generation of iPhone would be released- The Apple iPhone 5. The Apple iPhone 5 has already created a wave of curious and exciting vibes from dedicated iPhone users since the features of the phone is definitely bound to create nothing less than a revolution in the smart phone market.

Some sources reveal that this mega-wonder of a phone is going to sport a ‘Near Field Communication’ (NFC) that will allow the phone to communicate and connect to the short-range wireless points like sensors on posters, signs and even POS terminals. This means that you can now use your phone like a credit card to shop in retail stores. The phone may also feature a multi-core processor. We have already had the release of the LG Optimus 2X with a dual-core processor and which sped fast in performance when compared to the iPhone 4. So, chances are that the iPhone 5 might accommodate a higher horsepower to ace the race and come up with a quad-core or multi-core processor mobile chipset. Even the OS is rumored to be an iOS for this phone.

To get your hands on the best deals on this wonderful iPhone version you may want to keep a regular check on the various online Apple iPhone 5 offers. Contract deals are your best options to obtain such incredible phones at cheap prices or may be for free altogether. All you have to do is pay the monthly rentals as a part of the Apple iPhone 5 offers. Since major mobile manufacturers tie up with top network providers in most of the first world countries, they are able to offer high caliber handsets such as these along with a pre-installed network service and a package of other lucrative freebies like free text messages, free call minutes, free internet usage and free items like laptops, Plasma television, DVD players, iPods, gaming consoles and so on. If you are someone who travels a lot then you could go for the pay-as-you-go deals wherein you could save a lot on the roaming chargers by being able to select from a range of best local networks.

When you acquire your iPhone 5 from such contract deals, most of the time, the network providers lock your phone thus limiting most of its applications. This is done so that you do not access any other networks or services until the contract period is over. However, you would not want to compromise on the optimum use of your monstrous and futuristic gadget bound by limitations. So in order to be able to access all networks and almost all iPhone Apps in the Apps store you need to unlock the Apple iPhone 5. To unlock the Apple iPhone 5 you are required to obtain unlock codes from trusted vendors who help you unlock the code without any external tools. Getting it done yourself will save you from sending your iPhone 5 to these vendors by post and risking physical damage.

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